Sunday, August 5, 2018

Lord Dunsany and the "Dictator" series

In 1933, the publisher E.V. Lucas of Methuen in London came up with the idea for a series of small books  to be authored by "a number of the foremost men of the day" to describe what attitudes they would adopt towards "current problems if a dictatorship were set up in England and they were placed in this position of supreme power." (Whether or not this series was inspired by a very similar series of articles published in 1931-32 in the American magazine The Nation is not known. The Nation's series included writers such as Stuart Chase (November 18, 1931), G. Lowes Dickinson (November 25, 1931), William Allen White (December 2, 1931), Lewis Mumford (December 9, 1931), Glenn Frank (December 23, 1931), Harold J. Laski (January 6, 1932), Morris L. Ernst (January 13, 1932), and Oswald Garrison Villard (January 20, 1932).)

Lord Dunsany was invited to contribute in December 1933, and he wrote his book (just over 18,000 words) in a mere four weeks. Dunsany's volume was published in May 1934, the second published of the series.  The first published was by Lord Raglan, and two more appeared in 1934, including volumes by Julian S. Huxley and St. John Ervine.  The "Dictator" series (as it was named by the publisher) had a standard cover design.

Methuen published three more of the series in 1935, by Vernon Bartlett, H.R.L. Sheppard, and James Maxton.  An announced volume by Robert Lynd never appeared, but a volume by C.E.M. Joad entitled The Dictator Resigns appeared in 1936, and was self-evidently connected with the series, providing (at least) a definable endpoint.

Dunsany's biographer Mark Amory gave an interesting evaluation of Dunsany's volume:
He gave it the sub-title, The Pronouncements of the Grand Macaroni, and listed his main quarrels with the twentieth century. It is a good-tempered, short book which manages to include his disapproval of misprints, advertisements (at length), white flour, which destroys the teeth, tinned food, wooden pips in raspberry jams, ginger beer, weedkiller (only salt was allowed at Dunsany), skinning seals, cutting dogs' tails (surprisingly brief), lampshades that fail to shield the glare of the naked bulb and many, many more. Apart from his views that the League of Nations and disarmament are good in themselves but will not present men fighting and a few jokes against Indian independence, he is unconcerned with politics. His only serious positive plea is for a national theatre (Lord Dunsany: A Biography, p. 235).
What Amory leaves out is how dull and dated the book is.  Coming immediately after The Curse of the Wise Woman (1933), one of Dunsany's best novels, it marks a considerable step downward in quality. If I Were Dictator is certainly a low point in Dunsany's oeuvre.

Friday, July 27, 2018

David Lindsay: Familiar Bindings

Mark Valentine recently wrote at Wormwoodiana (direct URL here) about Mary Tyrwhitt Drake's novel Outgoing Tides, published by John Long in May 1924.  What struck me first is that the binding of the book is the same design, and same color of cloth, as that used on David Lindsay's novel Sphinx, published by John Long in December 1923.  Here are some scans of the binding of Sphinx:


Front cover

 Here is the (soiled) binding case of Outgoing Tides:

And here's another one, for H.M. Egbert's [Victor Rousseau's] Draught of Eternity (John Long, January 1924):

I wonder whether there are other John Long publications from 1923-24 that have the same binding?

Sunday, February 18, 2018

The Dust-Wrapper for David Lindsay's Devil's Tor

The first edition of David Lindsay's Devil's Tor, published by G.P. Putnam's Sons of London in April 1932, has an elegant dust-wrapper.  The central illustration is uncredited, but one of the early newspaper reviews of the book reproduces it with a caption that describes it as "A Woodcut for Devil's Tor by William Kermode."

The illustration is probably not a woodcut, but rather art done on scraper board, which was a specialty of Kermode's, so much so that he wrote a book about it, Drawing on Scraper Board for Beginners (1936).

William Kermode was born in Hobart, Tasmania, in 1895.  He came to England before World War I and joined the British Army (he would also serve in W.W. II.) In the mid to late 1920s he studied at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art. He made a series of vibrant linocuts of his own war experiences, for which Henry Williamson wrote the accompanying text. The resulting book, The Patriot's Progress, appeared in 1930.  Kermode therafter provided illustrations for many magazines, books, dust-wrappers, etc. He contributed a frontispiece to Sylvia Townsend Warner's A Moral Ending and Other Stories (1931). Kermode died in 1959.

A close-up of the vignette for Devil's Tor

Monday, January 8, 2018

The Pamphlet Edition of Dunsany's CARCASSONNE Dated at Last!

There was a undated pamphlet edition of Lord Dunsany's short story Carcassonne released by the John W. Luce Company sometime in the past. (The story was reprinted from the 1916 Luce edition of A Dreamer's Tales.) I've known about it since the late 1970s or very early 1980s, when I saw a copy in Manuel Tarshish's Dunsany Collection, which was in the Rare Books department at Cornell University. It's definitely a curiosity, for it states right on the title page that it is a limited edition, "reprinted for Miss Virginia Berry."  And that's all.  No hint as to who Miss Berry was, and no details of the limitation, though the booklet is fairly rare.

It was never listed in Books in Print, and for years the only detail I could find about it was that it appeared in the 1947-1950 John W. Luce & Company trade list, probably the final Luce list before it slunk out of business. Thus owing to its listing in this 1950 listing, I presumed Carcassonne probably dated from c. 1950, though the last real Luce books dated from the early to middle 1940s.  

Finally, I can say that the booklet came out much earlier. It was produced for a lavish book fair in Washington, D.C. which took place on Wednesday, April 14th, 1920, at the  home of Mrs. Frances Berger Moran at 2315 Massachusetts Avenue (for photos of the house, see here). The book fair was sponsored by the National League of American Pen Women, founded in 1897 and still active today.

Apparently Miss Virginia Berry ran some sort of custom restaurant in Georgetown she had named "Carcassonne" after Dunsany's story, which Dunsany himself had visited the year before when he was on his first American tour in late 1919. Details are given in a fairly long article from the Society pages of The Sunday Star (Washington, D.C.), April 4, 1920, which I give below.  Meanwhile, I'm pleased, after nearly forty years of wondering, to date the pamphlet to April 1920.

"Is every one in Washington either a writer, artist or musician?" This is the question that the Penwomen are asking. Since they announced their plans for the authors' carnival ball and book fair, to be given on April 14 at the home of Mrs. Francis Berger Moran, 2315 Massachusetts avenue, so many responses have been made from the talent of Washington that the affair could well be entitled "Washingtoniana."

The league being a national organization, with auxiliaries in many states and representatives in every state in the country, with headquarters in Washington, is drawing much outside talent to the city for that occasion. So instead of it being wholly a local affair it will really be a contest between who is to receive the greatest honors, those coming to Washington to appear or our own home aspirants.

From the time the guests enter the door of Mrs. Moran's beautiful residence they will be in an atmosphere literary. The large reception room, with its many priceless pieces of art brought from abroad, will be turned Into a Japanese garden, to be entitled "The Spell of Japan," from the book by that name of our own Isabel Anderson—Mrs. Lars Anderson, wife of the former ambassador to Japan. It was while residing in Japan that Mrs. Anderson, who is a member of the League of American Penwomen and one of its strongest supporters in its effort to establish a literary center in Washington, wrote this exquisite story of the flowery kingdom. The ladies' dressing room is to be turned into a bower of beauty by a leading specialist in that line, and is to have the appropriate title of "Vanity Fair." The men's smoking room on this floor is to be Persian in atmosphere and decoration, an Omar Khayyam room, with "a loaf of bread, a Jug of wine and thou," the jug of wine, alas, being merely a cup of coffee, owing to a vast change having taken place since Omar sang In the wilderness, but "thou" will be there, pretty young ladies in Persian costume, who will serve the coffee, which will, by the way, be very delicious, being made in the true oriental style.

On this floor also will be the luncheon room, the Carcasonne, under the management of Miss Virginia Berry. The name Carcassonne is taken from one of the stories in "A Dreamer's Tales," by Lord Dunsany, and is a story of the beautiful, mythical city of happiness, which all seek and so few find. Lord Dunsany came to Washington last fall, and, although here only one day, he took the time to visit the Carcassonne in Georgetown. He congratulated Miss Berry upon her materialization in so beautiful a manner his mental conception, and left his signature on the wall, just over the fireplace, as a memento of his visit. At the book fair the basement kitchen will be turned into an old French room of tile medieval period, with an old bar, with pretty barmaids and French waitresses in costume of that early French period, thus carrying out the atmosphere of the fanciful and imaginative story of the Carcasonne. John W. Luce & Co. of Boston, publishers of "A Dreamer's Tales," are having a special edition made of the single story of the Carcassonne to be sold at the book fair.

Then up the winding stairway the guests reach the ballroom floor. Here author, musician and artist will vie with each other in giving entertainment. In the music room a continuous program of music will be given from the time the affair opens at 11
o'clock until it closes at 6, interspersed with author's readings and tableaux. The large dining room will be turned over to the sale of autographed books, illustrations, original manuscripts, songs and photographs. The list of books is headed by one of Mr. Wilson's books, and among the autographed photographs to he sold is one each of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson; also one of Mr. Marshall, Mr. and Mrs. Taft, and an interesting one of Premier Lloyd George of England.

Special exhibits in this room are to be under Mrs. Keyes, wife of Senator Henry W. Keyes of New Hampshire who will have an exhibit and sale of the works of official Washington: Miss Bertha Frances Wolfe, who will present the works of the Daughters of the Revolution; Mrs. Theodore Tiller who is collecting the works of the members of the Press Club. Mrs. Florence Jackson Stoddard, who will exhibit hooks of the romance languages; Mrs. George Combs, who will present her own collection of Madonnas, which is considered by authorities to be one of the largest in the United States. There will be many others, among them one given by Mrs. Rachael Tongate Beck, widow of Gen. William H. Beck. Mrs. Beck is a past president of the league and its oldest writer, who is still producing. Mrs. Beck has written for fifty years, and is now engaged in writing her memoirs of this eventful period in world's history. Art. literature and music among the American Indians will also be represented. Mrs. Gertrude Bonnin (Zitkala-Sa), a Sioux Indian from Yankton, S.D., will present her own book. Old Indian Legends." Mrs. Bonnin has made a place for herself in America with this book and her others, "The Memories of Indian Childhood" and "School Days of an Indian Girl." Mrs. Bonnin will autograph all copies of her books sold.

Through all the spirit of festival and carnival will reign. Every room of the forty rooms of this great mansion will be overflowing with unique entertainment. One room will be turned into a gypsy camp, from Carmen, under the direction of Mrs. S. B. Milton, who will take the part of Carman. She will appeal in the same costume of Carmen in which she appeared when she sang the title role in that opera. She will have assisting her many of this season's young debutantes, who will dress as gypsies and read the fortunes by palms and cards For the more serious minded, the biblical room, under Mrs. Nanette H. Paul, who will show the famous Madame Mountford collection of costumes and articles from the Holy Land. Then for the lover of the futurist art and brilliant coloring of the modern-day poster painter there will be the poster room. Here will be shown the wonderful collection of posters made by the camouflage section of the 40th Engineers. The men composing this section were the leading young illustrators and artists of the country. There is also to be a mystery room entitled "The Anna Katherine Green Mystery Room.' Mrs. Patterson, wife of Col. Charles H. Patterson, is in charge of this room. All plans are being kept secret.

At 6 o'clock the book fair ends. At 9 the ball starts. From the land of literature, art and music, as represented at the fair, beloved characters of the readers’ world will step forth, as the hall is to be a costume affair, all costumes to be chosen from the land of make-believe. A prize will he awarded for the best impersonation after all have passed before three judges in the grand march.

While the dancing is in progress on the ballroom floor there will be card-playing on the upper floor. Refreshments will be served and if summer breezes blow the roof garden will be open to the guests.

Monday, December 11, 2017

James Branch Cabell and E.R. Eddison

When Ballantine reprinted James Branch Cabell’s Domnei in the Adult Fantasy series in March 1972, the rear cover sported a new blurb by E.R. Eddison, who had died in 1945. Where did the blurb come from?  It turns out that it came from a letter Eddison wrote to Cabell in 1926, and it related not to Domnei but to Jurgen.

When Albert & Charles Boni published the first American edition of The Worm Ouroboros in May 1926, they included in the front matter of the book a facsimile letter dated 21 November 1925 from James Branch Cabell to the publishers.  It reads, as follows:


In reply to your letter of the twelfth, it has now for three years stayed a puzzle to me that The Worm Ouroboros is not better known. The book, to be sure, is not for everyone. So many persons, indeed, to whose attention I have introduced it, have gotten from the volume only boredom that I have at last, through a series of depressing failures to communicate my enthusiasm, been reduced to concluding that a reader finds perforce in this book exceeding joy or else nothing at all,—in either case, quite unpredictably.

To me, in any event, The Worm Ouroboros remains a rather majestic example of romance,—of really pure romance, untitivated, in our modern way, with satire or allegory, or even with humor,—of the romance, in fine, which purchases, through its own unadulterate magic, and for no utilitarian ends whatsoever, the momentary “suspension of disbelief” in many very beautiful impossibilities.

Yours faithfully,

James Branch Cabell

Eddison wrote to Cabell on 19 June 1926:

Dear Sir

I have just received copies of the American edition of my Worm Ouroboros, and read for the first time your generous comments on my book. I must write this line to thank you. Also to thank you for the pleasure I have had from Jurgen; and most of all, from Queen Anaïtis, with whom I have hopes that someday, in Elysium, I too may voyage to that island in Cocaigne. In that passage (end of Ch. XX and CH. XXI) you have, in my humble judgment, touched perfection. It has that quality of really great writing, to be better always at the last time of reading than at the time before; and its delightful humour is without all topical or extraneous adulteration which, growing out of fashion, could rob it of its freshness with the lapse of time.

I am proud to have your name on my books, and to know that you like it.

Yours faithfully,

E.R. Eddison

These letters were published in a 1968 issue of Kalki, the journal of the James Branch Cabell Society, where Lin Carter saw them and later applied Eddison's comments to Domnei. (Carter even recommends reading Kalki and joining the Cabell Society in his introduction to Domnei.)

After Eddison’s novel Mistress of Mistresses (1935) was published, Cabell reviewed it favorably in the January 1936 issue of The American Mercury. Some of Cabell’s review was reworked into the discussion of literature in the twenty-fourth chapter of Cabell’s novel Smire (1937).

Sunday, November 19, 2017

A New Citation of C.S. Lewis on David Lindsay!

Joy Davidman (1915-1960) moved from America to England in November 1953.  She was already friends with C.S. Lewis (whom she would marry in 1956) and his brother W.H. Lewis via correspondence and a previous visit to England from August 1952 to January 1953. Davidman settled in London, and quickly became attached to the group of science fiction writers and fans who met at the Globe tavern in Hatton Garden.  The group had previously met at the White Horse, from 1947 through the end of 1952. But at the very beginning of 1953, after the White Horse came under new management, the popular bartender Lew Mordecai left to work at the Globe, and the science fiction group followed him there, where he served them for the next twelve years.
Frank Arnold (1914-1987) was one of the regular attendees at both pubs for many years, and Rob Hansen has recently selected and transcribed some memoirs from Arnold’s papers. Of especial interest here is the fact that Joy Davidman brought as guests to one meeting C.S. Lewis and his brother Warnie, probably sometime early the early months of 1954. Here is what Arnold recorded of the occasion:

"The first distinguished author to call on us at the Globe was no less a man than C. S. Lewis (Out of the Silent Planet, The Screwtape Letters, etc.). One of the great scholars of his time, Professor Lewis was forthright in upholding his own views on all questions of history, literature and theology. If they happened to coincide with fashionable opinion, well and good, but if they did not – well, it was rough luck on fashionable opinion! When he came to the Globe, Lewis did not really know who we were, nor did he need to – enough that here was The Master enjoying an evening off among admiring pupils. What a feast of conversation we had that evening! Lewis hated and loved SF in almost equal measure, and I shall never forget how his eyes lit up when I chanced to mention Lindsay’s Voyage to Arcturus. ‘An evil book,’ he called it, with relish, for he was as strongly devoted to it as I am. So far from sharing A. M. Low’s belief in the blessings of science, Lewis believed that science was the especial gift of Satan – a view which has since been propagated by many much less exalted thinkers and agitators"

A lovely description of Lewis’s reaction to a conversational mention of David Lindsay’s A Voyage to Arcturus, one of the important inspirations for Lewis’s Out of the Silent Planet and Perelandra.   

Wednesday, August 30, 2017

A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS: A Review "to make the gorge rise"

David Lindsay had an ill-starred publishing career from its very outset with the publication of his first novel, A Voyage to Arcturus, in September 1920.  One of the first reviews of the book appeared in The Times Literary Supplement, on 30 September 1920.  It reads in full:

However much one may resent such a book as 'A Voyage to Arcturus', one must pay tribute to the cleverness which enables Mr. David Lindsay to capture the elusive quality of the worst kind of nightmare. He does not content himself with giving us a vivid description of life as it conceivably might be on another planet; we are transported to remote regions of space in order that the riddle of human existence may be studied in the true perspective; and the solution thence afforded is very much what one might expect a temporarily unbalanced mind to arrive at if an anaesthetic were potent for just one critical instant longer—which, mercifully, it never is. Mr. Lindsay's imagination is prolific rather than powerful, and he has not controlled it towards any coherent result. For instance, the hero of the adventure, Maskull, encounters on his journey in Arcturus, a number of entities— human, superhuman, and diabolic—whose relation to him and to each other never becomes clear; nor can we find any connecting link between the startling and often gruesome episodes which mark his progress. There may be an intention of allegory in what appears to be simply the riot of morbid fancy; but we doubt whether many readers will be inclined to pursue the possible hidden meaning over a quagmire and through a noisome fog. For the book is, at any rate, consistent in respect of its uniform unwholesomeness; the keynote being struck in the opening chapter, which recalls Baudelaire or Poe in his most grisly vein. It is, no doubt, a legitimate aim of the writer of fiction to make the flesh creep; scarcely, we think, to make the gorge rise. 

Poor Lindsay! To be so completely misunderstood and so thoroughly mis-categorized on the publication of his very first book. Who wrote these idiotic statements?  What kind of reviewer was this?  Of course the TLS reviews were anonymous for many years, so one might think that the identity of this reviewer would never be known, but in the last decade, the historical database of The Times Literary Supplement has revealed the identities of  the bulk of the people who reviewed specific titles anonymously.  And the author of the above review of A Voyage to Arcturus was one A.M. Champneys. Which leads on to further questions: who was A.M. Champneys, and why did this person have such a unflinchingly erroneous view of Lindsay's book?

It turns out that A.M. Champneys was in fact Adelaide Mary Champneys (1888-1966), the fourth and final child of the famous architect (of many buildings in Oxford, Cambridge and London) and author Basil Champneys (1842-1935) and his wife, Mary Theresa Ella née Drummond (1858-1941), who were married in 1876.  Basil's father and one of his brothers were clergyman (his father was very late in life made the Dean of Lichfield). Basil had been one of eight children of a hard-working old county family with only a modest income; at his death he left an estate valued at nearly fifty-thousand pounds. Of his two sons, Amien Lister Champneys (1879-1951) followed his father's footsteps and became an architect, while Michael Weldon Champneys (1884-1957) became a clergyman.  His other daughter, besides Adelaide, was Cicely Marion Champneys (1881-1968).

Adelaide's first book was a booklet of Verses (1902), printed by the Chiswick Press. It was signed with her initials, A.M.C., with a poem "Father's Good Wishes" signed B.C. Her next three books were signed as by A.M. Champneys, and they include Love's Empire and Other Poems (1909) and two novels, Bride Elect (1913) and The Recoiling Force (1914).  Between 1919 and 1924, Adelaide reviewed some seventy books in the TLS. Contrasting her review of A Voyage to Arcturus, Adelaide found favor in books like Queen Lucia by E.F. Benson ("an altogether satisfying entertainment," 5 August 1920), and Margaret Irwin's Still She Wished for Company ("there is scarcely a flaw in the working out of this ingenious fantasy," 13 March 1924). As she ceased reviewing, she turned back to the writing of novels, publishing them anonymously, beginning with The House Made with Hands (1924) and Miss Tiverton Goes Out (1925).  While the former was apparently moderately successful in England, the latter was a hit in the United States, and while her next two novels appeared in England as "by the author of The House Made with Hands,"  the American publisher Bobbs-Merrill quickly brought out The House Made with Hands, and subsequent books, marketing them as "by the author of Miss Tiverton Goes Out." These include This Day's Madness (1926) and November Night (1928). Her British publisher dropped her, but Bobbs-Merrill kept going with her new work, including a Memorial to George, by Himself (1929), which is the diary of a squirrel, his memoirs being edited "by the author of Miss Tiverton Goes Out." Next came The Longer Day (1930) and I Can Wait (1933), followed by Fool's Melody (1937). The latter is "by the author of Miss Tiverton Goes Out and Michael Cape-Meadows,"  Cape-Meadows being the pseudonym of her clergyman brother Michael. Her final book came out ten years later, Red Sun and Harvest Moon  (1947), as by Adelaide Champneys. Evidently this book finally revealed Champneys as the author of Miss Tiverton Goes Out.

Critically, Champneys got a fairly welcome reception after a rocky start. With regard to Bride Elect, the TLS noted "the author is not quite sufficiently equipped to fill so large a canvas" (27 February 1913), while it found The Recoiling Force to have "a large number of minor characters of whom unsympathetic would be a mild description"  (12 November 1914).  Of her later anonymous books, many reviewers detected that the author was a woman.  Here I will focus on only two of the books, Miss Tiverton Goes Out, her greatest success, and her final book, Red Sun and Harvest Moon.

A few reviews of Miss Tiverton Goes Out reveal the flavor of that book*:

The book describes the growth of a sensitive, rebellious child in an uncongenial and vulgar family. Juliet's reaction to her parents, her sisters and her brother is given with great truth. The Cinderella or ugly duckling theme, handled with sincerity, yields up treasuresin this case the awkward child's instinctive  awareness of a scheme of values outside outside her prison, her loyalty to the instinct through all failure and despiteful usage, and at last her acceptance of her course kindred as weak human beings with a claim upon her. . . . The symbolism conveying the sense of the other world ('time immemorial' is Juliet's phrase for it) is elaborated in the person of an old woman next door who is never seen and whose house and land Juliet's father (he is a speculative builder) tries and fails to buy. The effect [is] of a bustling, garish scene dominated, no one can say how or why, and in the end quite confounded, by an invisible presence of whom all that is known is that she is feeble, old and of no account. Miss Tiverton only appears at the end, and then in her coffin.  The New Statesman, 7 February 1925
Phantasy and philosophy are earnestly blent in this book. Perhaps the author's anonymity casts a glamour upon it. One suspects that a woman has written it; otherwise there are no clews. Whoever she may be, she understands the art of writing and has a mind so sensitive that she has conceived without flaw a subtle and delicate story. The New York Herald Tribune, April 1926  
And of her final novel:

Character story of a meek, down-trodden English woman, whose whole life is one of renunciation. The Book Review Digest, 1947
Miss Champneys (whose previous fiction, published anonymously, includes 'Miss Tiverton Goes Out') has written a novel which, presumably, will provide comfort and reassurance for those whose lives have followed such dreary paths of abnegation as Mildred's. Acceptance of one's lot in life is hard come by and is usually prefaced by some storm or questioning. The distraught Mildred is conditioned by heritage and environment to quick surrender of her individuality. Her story, while affecting, is not particularly exciting. And the interest of the general reader may well be dampened by the flow of her easy tears. The New York Times, 16 March 1947  
Do any of these details about Champneys's life and her works help to explain her hostility to A Voyage to Arcturus?  I don't know. Perhaps Lindsay's solution to the riddle of life on Tormance (the planet which circles around the double-star Arcturus) can only be seen as diabolic by someone like Champneys raised in a conventional family of clergyman?  Thus she found his philosophical explication to be "a nightmare" from a "temporarily unbalanced mind" with no "coherent result" beyond a "riot of morbid fancy" in a "quagmire and through a noisome fog" which is of "uniform unwholesomeness" and likely "to make the gorge rise." Again, I don't know, but will be glad to entertain other possibilities.

* See also the lengthy online review of this book at Furrowed Middlebrow which calls it "a kind of masterpiece of oddness."